P

Policy

 

E

Economy

 

I

Science

   

T

Technology

 

V

Environ.

 

S

Society

 

C

Culture

 

M

Military

 

H

Health

 

L

Legal

 

D

Educat.

 

R

Religion

 

O

Other

 

P

1949, October: Proclamation of the People's Republic of China.

 

I

1949, November: China founds Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), merging Academia Sinica (Nanjing) and Beiping Academy (Beijing).

 

The 1950s

 

L

1950: New marriage law bans polygamy and arranged marriages. Tries to strengthen women's status.

 

P

1949, December: Mao Zedong travels to Moscow to negotiate a friendship treaty with Joseph Stalin.

 

D

1950 - 1953: Socialization of the educational system. Introduction of Soviet-style curricula.

 

S

1950 - 1955: Mao favors pro-natalistic population policy.

 

H

1950 - 1955: Significant improvement of food security among small-scale peasants due to land reform.

 

P

1950, February: China and the Soviet Union sign "Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance".

 

E

1950, June: Agrarian Reform Law. Land of landlords and wealthy farmers is re-distributed to millions of peasants

 

M

1950, October: Chinese People's Volunteer Army invades Korean Peninsula to support their North Korean allies agains the USA.

 

M

1950, November: The People's Republic of China takes control of Tibet.

 

P

1951: Vatican and China break off diplomatic relations.

 

P

1951: United Nations places a global arms embargo on China because China's involvement in Korean War.

 

E

1953 - 1957: 1. Five Year Plan focusing on Soviet-style development of heavy industries.

 

P

1956 - 1957: "Hundred Flowers" campaign misleads intellectuals to complain about problems.

 

H

1956, August: First mass mobilization for birth control by the Ministry of Public Health has very little impact.

 

T

1956, September: The Sino-Soviet agreement on technological aid in the field of nuclear industry is signed in Moscow.

 

P

1957 - 1958: "Anti-Rightist" Campaign is used by Mao to eliminate critical intellectuals.

 

D

1957, March: Foundation of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Zhongguo nongye kexueyuan).

 

E

1958: All land is collectivized and farmers are organized into (large) People's Communes.

 

P

1958: Begin of the "Great Leap Forward" campaign.

 

D

1958: First introduction of the Pinyin phonetic spelling system for Romanization of Chinese words.

 

S

1958 - 1961: Utopian ideas for transforming the family, marriage, and children's education ("new human being").

 

T

1958 - 1961: Mao's program of rural industrialization leads to absurd technology of backyard furnaces for steel production.

 

V

1958 - 1961: Large-scale deforestation due to cultivation of wooded areas and firewood demand (backyard furnaces).

 

P

1959: Sino-Soviet relations deteriorate dramatically. The Soviet Union is restricting transfer of science and technology to China.

 

C

1959: Revolutionary romanticism: Monumental nature painting in Great Hall of the Peoples (Fu Baoshi, Guan Shanyue).

 

E

1959 - 1961: "Great Leap Forward" triggers largest famine in human history with an estimated 14-30 million casualties.

 

M

1959, March: Tibetan population revolts against Chinese occupation is suppressed with "iron fist".

 

The 1960s

 

I

1960: Almost all research is focused on the development of nuclear technology.

 

T

1960: With availability of gasoline and electricity in the 1960s, farmers begin to use tube wells for irrigation in Northern China.

 

V

1960: Increasing use of tube wells for irrigation in Northern China will lead to groundwater depletion in the 1990s.

 

T

1960, July: Khrushchev recalls Soviet advisors and technical experts in China. Open conflict between China and USSR.

 

E

1961 - 1965: Increase in production and import of agricultural inputs (fertilizers, machinery, pesticides)

 

E

1961 - 1965: Readjustment and recovery: "Agriculture First" policy. Food situation improves.

 

M

1962: Border conflict with India over areas in the Himalaya.

 

S

1962 - 1972: In the 1960s China's population growth peaks. Between 1962 and 1972 some 300 million babies are born.

 

S

1962 - 1972: High population growth (average of 26.7 million birth per year) in the late 1960 increases pressure on natural resources.

 

P

1964, January: China and France establish diplomatic relations. Taiwan's embassy in Paris is closed.

 

M

1964, October: Test of first nuclear bomb in China.

 

P

1965: Tibet becomes autonomous region.

 

P

1966: The "Little Red Book". Climax of Mao-cult.

 

L

1966 - 1976: During Cultural Revolution China's jurisdiction essentially ceases to operate.

 

S

1966 - 1968: Destruction of "The Four Olds": Old ideas, old culture, old customs, old habits.

 

D

1966 - 1976: 10 years of turmoil at schools and universities seriously harm China's intellectual elites.

 

P

1966 - 1976: Mao's political concept of a "permanent cultural revolution" paralyzes his political enemies.

 

E

1966 - 1976: Between "Cultural Revolution" and Mao's death stagnation in agriculture and industry.

 

R

1966 - 1976: During the Cultural Revolusion, religious practice is condemned as feudalistic.

 

P

1966 - 1976: The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution - a decade lost in anarchy and chaos.

 

M

1967, June: Test of first nuclear fusion device in China

 

T

1968: The Space Flight Medical Research Centre is founded in preparation for manned space flights (led by Tsien Hsueshen).

 

P

1969: Mao Zedong anoints Lin Biao as his heir apparent.

 

M

1969, March: Clash with Soviet troops at Damanskii Island (Zhen Bao) of the Ussuri river (Wusuli Jiang).

 

O

1969, October: First line of Beijing's subway is completed.

 

The 1970s

 

M

1970: In the mid-1970s China's relations with Vietnam begin to deteriorate. Violent incidents along the Sino-Vietnamese border.

 

T

1970: First satellite launch ("Long March").

 

V

1970 - 1980: Based on a 50-year forest inventory, researchers find that between 1970 and 1980 Chinese forest expanded significantly.

 

P

1970 - 1976: "Gang of Four" with Mao's wife is trying to get influence by spearheading the "Cultural Revolution".

 

P

1970 - 1976: Mao Zedong is increasingly disappearing from public life due to health problems.

 

T

1971, March: Successful launch of the SJ-1 statellite into orbit with two scientific payloads (detecting cosmic rays).

 

P

1971, July: Henry Kissinger secretly visits China.

 

P

1971, September: Lin Biao is killed in airplane crash while fleeing after an attempted military coup.

 

P

1971, November: The People's Republic replaces the Republic of China (Taiwan) in UN Security Council.

 

H

1972 - 1973: Group in State Council of China mobilizes resources for a nationwide birth control campaign, which has little impact.

 

P

1972, February: Visit of US President Richard Nixon to China. Normalization between US and China begins.

 

P

1973: The rivalry between the USSR and China now affects every aspect their foreign policy.

 

C

1974: Discovery of "Terracotta Army" in tomb near Xian with thousands of statues.

 

M

1974, June: China has a force of about 130 nuclear delivery vehicles - half missles and half bombers.

 

H

1975: Maximum recommended family size - in cities: two children, in rural areas: three to four children

 

P

1976, January: Death of Premier Zhou Enlai.

 

V

1976, July: Massive earthquake (7.8 Richter scale) devastates the city of Tangshan (Hebei Province). At least 270,000 people die.

 

P

1976, September: Chairman Mao Zedong dies at the age of 82. "Gang of Four" with Mao's widow tries to get into power.

 

D

1977: After the end of the Cultural Revolution the national unified entrance examination for unitversities is re-introduced.

 

E

1977: Hua Guofeng starts "Open Door" policy, which is later incorporated in Deng Xiaopings "Four Modernizations" program.

 

P

1977: Deng Xiaoping wins the power struggle after Mao's death.

 

R

1978: The 1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China guarantees freedom of religion with a number of restrictions.

 

D

1978: Pinyin system approved by State Council as the standard system of phonetic spelling of Chinese words.

 

E

1978 - 1990: Introduction of Pragmatism in China's political and economic system. Promotion of market elements.

 

E

1978 - 1979: Deng Xiaoping introduces stepwise economic reforms: "The Four Modernizations".

 

P

1978 - 1979: "Democracy Wall" in Beijing with pro-democratic posters.

 

H

1978, June: State Council establishes a new "Birth Planning Small Leading Group" to strengthen family planning.

 

T

1978, September: E-mail link is established between Germany and China (CSNET protocol). First message from China: Sept. 20.

 

L

1979: First modern environmental legislation in China.

 

P

1979: Diplomatic relations are established between the US and China.

 

E

1979: Introduction of the "Household Responsibility System" in agriculture greatly improves China's food security.

 

H

1979: Introduction of China's strict "One-Child" family planning program at provincial level, in 1980 at national level.

 

D

1979, January: Pinyin phonetic spelling system officially adopted by PRC government.

 

P

1979, January: U.S. President Jimmy Carter visits China.

 

M

1979, February: China invades Vietnam (for 29 days) after Vietnamese troups had ousted the pro-Beijing Pol-Pot regime in Cambodia.

 

L

1979, July: New Criminal Code becomes effective, legally banning torture and physical punishment of suspects.

 

The 1980s

 

E

1980: Special Economic Zones in Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou (Guangdong), Xiamen (Fujian), and the entire province of Hainan.

 

M

1980: Stop of the surface test program of nuclear bombs near Lop Nor in Xinjiang province after 23 tests.

 

P

1980: Early 1980s: Debates between "Reds" who favour ideological correctness and "Technocrats" who promote pragmatic reform.

 

E

1980 - 1990: Great improvement of China's food security. Significant reduction of rural poverty.

 

T

1980, June: Timothy Berners-Lee writes "Enquire" - a program that became the conceptual basis for the World Wide Web (www).

 

E

1980, August: First Special Economic Zones are established in Shenzhen.

 

T

1981, September: Successful launch of three satellites (SJ-2, SJ-2A, SJ-2b) on one rocket into orbit.

 

S

1982: China's population surpasses 1 billion people.

 

L

1982, December: The Fifth National People's Congress adopts a new constitution for China.

 

E

1984: 14 coastal cities are completely opened to foreign investment.

 

P

1984, January: China joins the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

 

P

1984, April: State Council authorizes Yangtze Valley Planning Office to draft feasibility report for Three Gorges Dam project.

 

D

1985: Free higher education is abolished and replaced by academic scholarships based on academic ability.

 

P

1985 - 1988: "Cultural Fever": Intellectuals identify China's "feudal" traditions as reason for backwardness.

 

D

1986: Legislation concerning compulsory education (usually 6 years).

 

P

1986: Thousands of students all over China are demonstrating for greater intellectual freedom.

 

I

1986: Foudation of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)

 

E

1986: Deng Xiaoping boosts "Open-door" policy to encourage Foreign Direct Investments.

 

L

1986: The Sixth National People's Congress adpots new Civil Law of the People's Republic of China.

 

L

1986 - 1995: Addministrative regulations of 1986 and 1996 allow forced labor camps for re-education (laodong jiaoyang).

 

S

1987: Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) comes to China. Introduction of Western-style fast-food to China.

 

P

1987, January: The too "liberal" General Secretary of China's Communist Party, Hu Yaobang, is forced to resign

 

P

1988: By mid-1988 the CCP annouces that its membership has increased to the all-time high of 47 million.

 

E

1988: Excessive economic growth with rampand corruption and out-of-control inflation of 18.5%.

 

C

1988 - 1993: Chinese movie directors win important international competitions.

 

T

1988, March: China successfully launches the DFH-2A fully operational communication satellite into earth's orbit.

 

C

1988, November: TV series "River Elegy" is criticized as "wholesale Westernization" and banned.

 

C

1989: France’s Hachette Filipacchi starts to publish a Chinese version of the fashion magazine "Elle".

 

V

1989: Revision of the environmental legislation from 1979.

 

P

1989: Jiang Zemin replaces Zhao Ziyang as CCP General Secretary.

 

P

1989, April: Hu Yaobang dies.

 

P

1989, June: Crack down of Tiananmen Square demonstrations with military power (official death toll: 200)

 

P

1989, June: In Madrid (Spain), the European Council of Ministers agrees to an EU-wide arms embargo against China.

 

The 1990s

 

H

1990: Tenthousands of blood plasma donors in rural areas are infected with HIV.

 

M

1990: Modernization of the People's Liberation Army begins.

 

E

1989, December: Stock markets are opened in Shanghai and Shenzhen.

 

P

1990 - 2006: Waves of public protests, particularly in rural areas, are concerning the Chinese government.

 

E

1990 - 2004: The process of restructuring and / or closing of state-owned enterprises is accelerated.

 

S

1991: First McDonald's Restaurant opens in Beijing.

 

M

1992: China ratifies the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

 

E

1992: Deng Xiaoping accelerates market reforms to establish a "socialist market economy".

 

R

1992: Falun Gong religious movement was founded by Li Hongzhi from Changchun, Jilin province

 

V

1993: Production of the pesticide DDT is officially stopped (but illegally used for several subsequent years).

 

V

1993: Widespread concerns among environmentalists about the Three Gorges Dam project.

 

S

1994: The Chinese government launches its ambitious "8-7 Plan" for eliminating extreme poverty by the year 2000.

 

T

1994: China connected to NSFNET (Internet).

 

R

1995: Massive program to rebuild Buddhist temples is started in the mid-1990s.

 

D

1995: Educational legislation stipulates a 9-year compulsory education.

 

T

1994, December: Start of the "Three Gorges Dam" project.

 

S

1995: Between 1978 and 2004 China reduced the population in severe poverty from 250 to some 26 million.

 

C

1995: In the late 1990s lifestyle magazines begin to proliferate, promoting a new image of educated, elegant career women.

 

E

1995: Overheating of the economy: 17% Inflation rate.

 

V

1995, October: Earthquake in Yunnan (6.5 at Richter scale). 50 people die and 6,000 are injured. 170,000 people homless.

 

M

1996: China acquires missile technology from two American companies: Hughes and Loral.

 

M

1996: Stop of the sub-terrain nuclear weapons test program.

 

T

1996, February: China launches Long March 3B orbital carrier rocket for communication satellites.

 

P

1997, February: Death of Deng Xiaoping.

 

P

1997, July: China gets control over Hong Kong's sovereignty.

 

V

1997, October: Certain environmental offenses are treated as crime and are included in the criminal code of China.

 

T

1998: The Microsoft and Intel corporations establish high-tech research facilities in Beijing.

 

V

1998: WHO reports that of the ten most polluted cities in the world, seven can be found in China.

 

V

1998: Worst flooding in years - 230 million people affected and 3,656 dead.

 

P

1998: Zhu Rongji follows Li Peng as China's Premier.

 

E

1998 - 1999: Slow-down of the Chinese economy - partly due to Asian Financial Crisis.

 

I

1998, January: Government cuts down redundant and inefficient manpower in the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

 

V

1998, April: One of the most devastating sandstorm in decades is raging in Beijing for two days, blocking sunlight.

 

I

1998, August: Chinese Government initiates "Project Yangtze" which provides special funds to leading researchers.

 

M

1999: China develops the neutron bomb, which can be used for tactical purposes.

 

M

1999: The U.S. Cox-Dicks Committee accuses China of using espionage to steal neutron bomb and technology.

 

R

1999: The Falun Gong movement is declared illegal in China and a threat to national security.

 

P

1999: Cooling of US-China relations after NATO bombs Chinese embassy in Belgrade, former Yugoslavia.

 

D

1999, January: New university legislation becomes effective. Gives greater autonomy to universities.

 

The 2000s

 

M

2000: China lounches Chinasat-22 (Zhongxing-22) communication satellite.

 

S

2000: Intensified anti-corruption activities. Former deputy chairman of People's Congress is executed for taking bribes.

 

D

2000: The Hanyu (Han language) Pinyin alphabet is written into law as unified standard for spelling and phonetic notation.

 

L

2000: Government consolidates Internet regulations for mainland China.

 

S

2000 - 2003: China begins long-distance population resettlement for the Three Gorges Dam project.

 

M

2000, October: The GPS satellete Beidou 1A is launched into orbit.

 

R

2000, October: The Vatican canonizes 120 "saints" that were "martyred" in China.

 

O

2001: Beijing is awarded the 2008 Olympic Games.

 

R

2001: Falun Gong (Falun Dafa) members stage mass demonstrations in Beijing despite outlaw of the movement.

 

P

2001, April: Major diplomatic crisis after US spy plane collides with Chinese fighter jet in mid-air and is forced to land.

 

P

2001, June: Growing tension across the Taiwan Strait.

 

E

2001, November: After years of negotiations, China becomes a member of the World Trade Organization.

 

S

2001, December: The Standing Committee of the 9th National People's Congress adopts "Population and Family Planning Law".

 

M

2002: China intensifies modernization of the People's Liberation Army.

 

E

2002: Kentucky Fried Chicken (a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc.) opens China's 700th KFC restaurant.

 

P

2002, February: US President George W. Bush visits China.

 

I

2002, April: Chinese scientists publish the genome sequence of the most widely cultivated rice subspecies (Indica).

 

P

2002, November: Hu Jintao replaces Jiang Zemin as head of the Communist Party.

 

H

2002, November: Most likely first cases of SARS in Guangdong.

 

T

2003: First-ever fiber optic network connection across Russian-Chinese border (Internet).

 

H

2003: During spring SARS virus outbreak in Hong Kong and Guangdong becomes known to the public. Quarantines.

 

H

2003, February: Two laboratories confirm avian influenza virus (H5N1) outbreak in Hong Kong.

 

P

2003, March: Hu Jintao is elected as President by National People's Congress.

 

M

2003, May: China launches the third (of three) Beidou-1 navigation satellites.

 

T

2003, October: First manned spacecraft send into orbit by "Long March 2F". Astronaut Yang Liwei.

 

H

2004: The United Nations estimates that one million Chinese are infected with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS).

 

T

2004: CERNET2 is China's first IPv6 high-speed network by CERN connecting 25 universities

 

H

2004, June: Scientists are warning that China may be facing a major HIV/AIDS epidemic.

 

M

2004, September: Government deploys heavily armed troops to protect Three Gorges Dam against terrorist attacks.

 

P

2004, October: China signes agreement with Russia setteling their long-lasting border conflicts.

 

H

2005: WHO says: Of all children alive today in China, around 50 million will die prematurely from tobacco use related disease.

 

T

2004, December: China has at least 94 million Internet users.

 

T

2005: Researchers at the Institute of Computing Technology (CAS) develop powerful 64-bit processor "Godson-2".

 

T

2005, June: China has at least 103 million Internet users, 45.6 million computer hosts, and 677,500 Web Sites.

 

M

2005, July: State-owned Galileo Industries begins cooperation with EU's Galileo satellite navigation system.

 

M

2005, August: Joint military maneuvers of China and Russia to "strengthen friendship".

 

T

2005, October: Two astronauts sent into space, circling earth with "Shenzhou VI space capsule".

 

V

2005, November: Water supply of Harbin city is cut off after high concentration of benzene in Songhua river.

 

V

2005, November: Attempts by regional government officials to cover up the water pollution catastrophe in Harbin.

 

V

2005, November: Major pollution of Songhua river after explosion of petrochemical plant in Jilin city (Jilin Province).

 

E

2006, January: CNOOC, one of China's largest oil and gas producers buys a stake in a Nigerian offshore oil and gas field.

 

H

2006, January: China's Ministry of Health, the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and WHO publish report on AIDS.

 

H

2006, January: China's Ministry of Health confirms the country's 10th case of human infection with the avian influenza virus H5N1.

 

P

2006, February: Prominent elderly leaders protest in open letter against the Communist Party's secretive propaganda department.

 

C

2006, March: The Chinese inaugural edition of "Rolling Stone" magazine is immediately sold out.

 

V

2006, June: China surpasses the United States in carbon dioxide emissions due to fossil fuel use and cement production.

 

M

2007, January: China shoots down old weather satellite, demonstrating capability of destroying hostile spy satellites.

 

L

2007, March: New landmark law on urban land use adopted by National People's Congress.

 

M

2007, May: China's military budget increases by 17.8% in 2007.

 

V

2007, October: Four million people have to be resettled within the next 10 to 15 years in the Three-Gorges Dam area.

 

T

2007, October: Lunar orbiter Chang'e 1 lounched into space to explore the Earth's moon.

 

E

2007, November: French company Areva wins deal to build two nuclear reactors in the South of China.

 

T

2007, December: Number of Internet Users in China reaches 210 million.

 

L

2007, November - 2008: Yahoo! accused of having provided information that led to imprisonment of civil rights activist in China.

 

T

2007, December: China celebrates launch of first domestically developed passenger jet Xiang Feng.

 

P

2008, February: U.S. Justice Department announces that several individuals are being charged with spying for China.

 

P

2008, March: Most violent ethnic protest in years erupt in Lhasa, Tibet's main city.

 

P

2008, March: Xinhua reports 19 deaths in public unrest at Tibet's capital Lhasa.

 

M

2008, March: China plans to increase its military budget by nearly 18%.

 

V

2008, May: Earthquake strikes Sichuan province: Death toll reaches 20,000.

 

V

2008, May: Death toll of May 12 earthquake rises to 40,075.

 

V

2008, June: Death toll of May 12 earthquake rises to 69,016, with more than 18,000 people still missing.

 

P

2008, August: Hua Guofeng dies in Beijing aged 87.

 

O

2008, August: China welcomes the world to the Beijing 2008 Olympic games.

 

H

2008, September: Sick toll in baby milk scandal raises to 13,000.

 

H

2008, October: Wen Jiabao accepts responsibility for milk scandal that might have affected more than 50,000 children.

 

E

2008, November: The government announces a $586 billion economic stimulus package.

 

E

2009, February: 20 million migrant workers may have lost their jobs in China due to global economic crisis.

 

E

2009, February: China makes largest investment in foreign company.

 

P

2009, July: Almost 200 people die and over 1,700 are injured in ethnic violence in Xinjiang.

 

P

2009, July: China demands that new personal computers come with filtering software "Green Dam Youth Escort".

 

V

2009, August: China surpasses the United States as the world's largest producer of household garbage.

 

C

2009, September: Chinese state TV (CCTV) focusing on 300 million Russian viewers.

 

P

2009, October: Mass celebrations to mark 60 years of Communist Party rule over China.

 

E

2009, November: China is now the largest automobile market in the world.

 

E

2009, December: New gas pipeline is opened between Turkmenistan and China.

 

P

2010, January: Google announces it will stop self-censoring its Internet search engine in China.

 

H

2010, March: China has some 90 million diabetics.

 

T

2010, March: Shaoxing is the maleware capital of the world in March 2010.

 

P

2010, March: Google stops its Chinese Internet search engine and re-routes mainland Chinese users to its Hong Kong site.

 

V

2010, April: Earthquake of magnitude 7.1 on Richter scale hits southern Qinghai province.

 

T

2010, May: China joins supercomputing elite.

 

L

2010, May: China reiterates ban of evidence obtained under torture.

 

L

2010, July: Chongqing's director of the municipal Judical Bureau, Wen Qiang, is executed for corruption.

 

P

2010, October: Communist Party elders critizise censorship.

 

P

2010, October: Jailed Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo wins 2010 Nobel Peace Price

 

P

2010, October: Xi Jinping is appointed a vice chairman of the party's Central Military Commission

 

O

2010, November: China starts 2010 population census.

 

M

2011, January: China unveiles its new J-20 stealth fighter.

 

P

2011, January: Violent protests in southern fishing village of Wukan against land seizures by officials.

 

E

2011, February: China overtakes Japan as world's second-biggest economy.

 

P

2011, April: The Chinese artist Ai Weiwei is arrested for "economic crimes".

 

E

2011, July: Coca-Cola profits jump on sales to China.

 

S

2012, January: China's urban population outnumbers its rural population.

Copyright © 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 by Gerhard K. Heilig. All rights reserved.

china-profile.com - 30 Sept. 2012